Kenyan Delegation at CITS in DC
From April 30 through May 4, the Center for International Trade and Security hosted 10 delegates from the government of Kenya for a workshop on strategic trade controls in Washington, DC. The visitors met with U.S. government officials, industry representatives, and academic experts to learn about effective strategic trade control systems and the important strategic trade control issues they will consider as part of future legislation. The event was sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) Program. The delegates represented a variety of Kenyan national government agencies and ministries, as well as the Africa Peace Forum.
Khripunov and Nikonov publish book for NATO
CITS researchers Igor Khripunov and Dmitriy Nikonov have collected the work of over 100 international experts from more than 20 countries for a new book in the NATO Science for Peace and Security series. New international approaches to strengthening nuclear security and preventing nuclear terrorism have been introduced since 2000. The adoption of new and revised international laws, initiatives, and voluntary mechanisms has led to improved security measures in this critical area, but there is still a need for stronger substantive and procedural arrangements. This book collects the presentations and deliberations of participants at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held in Vienna, Austria in January 2010.The papers presented here summarize current understanding of, and approaches to, the legal framework for nuclear security and counterterrorism. The book will be of interest to all governments, international organizations, researchers and practitioners worldwide who are involved in securing nuclear materials and preventing nuclear terrorism.
Securing Dual-Use Technologies
Most of the items needed to produce weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are dual-use in nature; they have both a peaceful application as well as a military or WMD application. These items are becoming more widely available on international markets as a result of globalization. Companies that produce and export these sensitive items are a critical, but often overlooked, player in global efforts to curb proliferation. The Center is working to promote strengthened corporate security standards and to encourage corporations to exercise greater oversight over trade in strategic technologies. The Center is currently investigating the role of exporters in monitoring and screening end-users and fulfilling nonproliferation obligations. The Center is also engaged in educating strategic exporters in key countries about strategic trade control requirements and related issues (e.g., WCO SAFE). Much of the Center’s outreach is currently focused on working with exporters in China, India and other expanding Asian economies.
Project spotlight: CARICOM
Nonproliferation Security Culture
Threat awareness is the foundation of WMD security culture. Accordingly, CITS has worked with numerous international partners, primarily in Russia, to apprise the staffs at nuclear facilities of the security challenges confronting them and of the importance of nonproliferation. For instance, the Center has offered collaborative training programs with the Moscow Institute for Professional Training, an arm of the Russian Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, or Rosatom, since 1999.
Nuclear Security Research
Our research efforts explore how personnel management, motivation, and training affect the security of WMD-related materials and technologies. The CITS team recognizes that equipment is no better than its user, and thus that technical fixes alone cannot assure the security of nuclear facilities and materials. Personnel at these facilities must have not only the technical acumen they need to discharge their duties, but also attitudes and habits befitting the great responsibility entrusted to them. Creating and sustaining a healthy “security culture” is largely a function of leadership.
CITS has published a number of research reports on the human element of security. The reports define the concept of nuclear security culture in detail and offer a methodology for evaluating and improving the culture at individual nuclear installations.
In the fall of 2005, CITS organized and co-sponsored a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled Nuclear Security Culture: From National Best Practices to International Standards in Moscow. The workshop brought together nearly 100 experts from the government, industry, and academic sectors in 35 countries to discuss the security challenges facing stewards of nuclear materials worldwide, and to develop a common understanding of nuclear security culture.
Chemical and Biological Security Research
CITS is forging ties with the University of Georgia biological and chemical research communities, for instance the University’s Biomedical & Health Sciences Institute, to begin examining security practices at laboratories and facilities that handle pathogens, chemicals, and other materials that could be used to produce chemical or biological weapons. This joint enterprise will extend the insights CITS has gleaned from studying nuclear security culture into new disciplines, further enhancing national and international security.
Science and Security Initiative
The world is witnessing exponential and unprecedented scientific growth in areas such as biochemistry, bioinformatics, genetics, nanotechnology, agronomy and agricultural engineering. Our society needs to be kept informed of technological developments that will impact our security. US policymakers need systematic and realistic assessments about the strategic implications of these scientific developments. Members of the academy can help.
The Center for International Trade and Security and the Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute have organized a Science and Security Initiative as part of the University of Georgia’s efforts to respond to bio-security and other science-related threats. The initiative involves faculty and students from the sciences, security and public policy fields. The initiative hosts special lectures and seminars and promotes interdisciplinary research. For more information about the initiative, contact Dr. Gary Bertsch, Director of the Center for International Trade and Security, or Dr. Harry Dailey, Director of the Biomedical and Health Sciences Institute.
CITS at the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit
CITS researchers headed to Seoul, South Korea in late March to distribute and discuss their publications at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. CITS will present the report from the February security culture workshop and a book, Legal Framework for Strengthening Nuclear Security and Combating Nuclear Terrorism, written for the NATO Peace and Security Series.